For purposes of dependability evaluation, the sheer number of 2 moment periods coded for every adjustable pertaining to intimate minorities ended up being summed throughout the periods within an episode to measure the frequency with which same intercourse intimate behavior and mention nonheterosexual sexual dilemmas took place within each system episode. This summing led to converting nominal data (for example., presence/absence) in the 2 minute interval degree into regularity counts at the system degree (range periods by which sex that is same behavior took place the episode). Consequently, the dependability analyses utilized the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The ICC is an evaluation regarding the percentage of variance when you look at the measures owing to coder agreement corrected for opportunity. For period information like the frequency matters utilized right right right here, the ICC is the same as Krippendorf’s alpha (Krippendorf, 1980).
An ICC of .70 had been used whilst the criterion for appropriate dependability. Both products utilized to measure the existence of nonheterosexual themes considerably surpassed this criterion. The ICC for exact exact exact same intercourse intimate behavior had been .97 in 12 months 1 and .99 in 12 months 2. The ICC for speak about nonheterosexual intimate dilemmas ended up being .89 in 12 months 1 and .95 in 12 months 2.
To respond to the very first group of research concerns in connection with prevalence of nonheterosexual material on tv, we used episode degree information ( e.g., percentages of episodes containing exact same intercourse intimate behavior and containing explore intercourse linked to nonheterosexuals) and chi square analyses to look at between team distinctions with your nominal information. For the 2nd collection of research concerns, we utilized just those suggests that included nonheterosexual intimate content and evaluated their regularity across 2 moment intervals ( ag e.g., range periods each hour of system time with nonheterosexual intimate talk). Of these analyses, we used t tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA) to evaluate team distinctions. Significant f that is omnibus had been followed up with post hoc comparisons making use of Tamhane’s T2 test, which will not assume equal cellular https://chaturbatewebcams.com/small-tits/ size or equal variance, to spot significant differences across teams.
Results.Prevalence of Nonheterosexual Sexual Content
About one in six programs inside our examples included any content that is sexualbehavior or talk) pertaining to nonheterosexuals. The increase that is slight nonheterosexual sexual content through the 2001 2002 period (14.5%) to your 2002 2003 period (17.4%) ended up being significant, П‡ 2 (1, N = 2715) = 4.15, p dining dining Table 1 displays the portion of reveals that contained any same intercourse intimate behavior and any intimate talk pertaining to nonheterosexuals by system genres, by sort of system, and also by period of day aired. The 11 stations were classified into one of three categories: commercial broadcast (which included the three major networks ABC, CBS, and NBC as well as Fox, UPN, and WB), cable music entertainment (which included BET and MTV), and premium cable movie (which included Cinemax, HBO, and Showtime) for network type. With regards to period of time broadcast, shows airing between 3:00 and 8:00 p.m. had been categorized as late evening that is afternoon/early those shown between 8:00 and 11:00 p.m. were classified as prime time.
Note: Within style of system and period of day aired, percentages within the column that is same don’t share subscripts vary at p Table 1 ). Generally in most instances, there is a high level of communication between a genre’s general ratings for exact exact same intercourse behavior that is sexual mention nonheterosexual intimate problems. Furthermore, genres’ standings on these two factors had been fairly stable over the two tv periods.
Three genres had been regularly lower in both kinds of nonheterosexual sexual content: Children’s cartoons (none of which included sexual behavior or intimate talk linked to nonheterosexuals in a choice of 12 months), news mags (0% for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 3.2per cent and 6.5%, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 2), and talk programs (0 and 3.0percent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 2.2 and 8.9per cent, respectively, for behavior and talk for 12 months 2). 3 Genres that had a tendency to have the greatest proportions of programs with nonheterosexual content had been variety/comedy and film that is feature. Designed for television movies and programs classified as вЂњotherвЂќ additionally had reasonably high proportions with nonheterosexual content that is sexual nevertheless, both these groups included just only a few programs (letter = 7), making it hard to draw conclusions about them. Consequently, although we consist of these second two genres within the tables, we usually do not emphasize the findings connected with them.